The cover image shows an embryonic day 14.5 murine heart immunostained for PROX1 (yellow), VE-cadherin (cyan), and cTnT (red). On page 4899, Chen et al. explore the contributions of VEGF-C to coronary artery stem formation and the interaction between aortic cardiomyocytes and the developing coronary stems.
Fibrotic disorders account for an increasing burden of disease-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although numerous risk factors have been recognized, the etiologies of many of these clinical syndromes have not been identified, and they are often termed idiopathic or cryptogenic. Here, we provide an evolutionary perspective on fibrosis aimed at elucidating its etiopathogenesis. By asking the
Victor J. Thannickal, Yong Zhou, Amit Gaggar, Steven R. Duncan
During the past 20 years, major advances have been made in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of allergen tolerance in humans. The demonstration of T cell tolerance, particularly that mediated by the immune-suppressive functions of IL-10, led to a major conceptual change in this area. Currently, the known essential components of allergen tolerance include the induction of allergen-specific regulatory subsets of T and B cells, the immune-suppressive function of secreted factors, such as IL-10 and TGF-β, the production of IgG4 isotype allergen–specific blocking antibodies, and decreased allergic inflammatory responses by mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils in inflamed tissues.
Cezmi A. Akdis, Mübeccel Akdis
Clinical vignette: A 49-year-old man with stage IV BRAFV600E-driven melanoma was initiated on twice-daily 960 mg of vemurafenib for treatment of progressive and recurrent subcutaneous metastatic disease of the left lower extremity. The patient’s melanoma responded well to targeted BRAF inhibition. At treatment onset, hematologic parameters were all within normal limits; however, within three months of initiating therapy, wbc were found to be elevated (to 20 K) with sustained lymphocytosis of mature phenotype. Immunophenotypic analysis was consistent with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and FISH results revealed presence of the CLL-associated deletion in chromosome 13q14 as well as in 2p33. Vemurafenib was withdrawn after approximately one year of therapy, and subsequently, his peripheral lymphocytosis resolved and CLL regressed. Nevertheless, a monoclonal B cell population persisted even 732 days after discontinuation of vemurafenib.
Catherine J. Wu
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia disease. Current drug- and surgical-based therapies are ineffective in about 40% to 50% of AF patients; therefore, there is a great need to better understand the underlying mechanisms of this disease and identify potential therapeutic targets. In this issue of the
Nieves Gomez-Hurtado, Björn C. Knollmann
In healthy individuals, cells that lose expression of MHC class I molecules are quickly targeted for elimination by NK lymphocytes. A paradox in cancer immunology is the observation that many tumor cells often have a drastic reduction of MHC class I molecules, yet these cells are not eliminated by NK cells, as they should be. In this issue of the
Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer
Preeclampsia, a life-threatening complication of human pregnancy, has a spectrum of clinical signs and is likely caused by an array of pathological mechanisms. However, elevated levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1) in the placenta and in the maternal circulation has emerged as a common finding in women with preeclampsia and likely is a causative factor in this disorder. In this issue of the
S. Lee Adamson
Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a genetic muscle disorder characterized by muscle dysfunction and electron-dense protein accumulations (nemaline bodies) in myofibers. Pathogenic mutations have been described in 9 genes to date, but the genetic basis remains unknown in many cases. Here, using an approach that combined whole-exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing, we identified homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in
Michaela Yuen, Sarah A. Sandaradura, James J. Dowling, Alla S. Kostyukova, Natalia Moroz, Kate G. Quinlan, Vilma-Lotta Lehtokari, Gianina Ravenscroft, Emily J. Todd, Ozge Ceyhan-Birsoy, David S. Gokhin, Jérome Maluenda, Monkol Lek, Flora Nolent, Christopher T. Pappas, Stefanie M. Novak, Adele D’Amico, Edoardo Malfatti, Brett P. Thomas, Stacey B. Gabriel, Namrata Gupta, Mark J. Daly, Biljana Ilkovski, Peter J. Houweling, Ann E. Davidson, Lindsay C. Swanson, Catherine A. Brownstein, Vandana A. Gupta, Livija Medne, Patrick Shannon, Nicole Martin, David P. Bick, Anders Flisberg, Eva Holmberg, Peter Van den Bergh, Pablo Lapunzina, Leigh B. Waddell, Darcée D. Sloboda, Enrico Bertini, David Chitayat, William R. Telfer, Annie Laquerrière, Carol C. Gregorio, Coen A.C. Ottenheijm, Carsten G. Bönnemann, Katarina Pelin, Alan H. Beggs, Yukiko K. Hayashi, Norma B. Romero, Nigel G. Laing, Ichizo Nishino, Carina Wallgren-Pettersson, Judith Melki, Velia M. Fowler, Daniel G. MacArthur, Kathryn N. North, Nigel F. Clarke
Activating mutations in the
Maria Noé Garcia, Daniel Grasso, Maria Belen Lopez-Millan, Tewfik Hamidi, Celine Loncle, Richard Tomasini, Gwen Lomberk, Françoise Porteu, Raul Urrutia, Juan L. Iovanna
Familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt) is a monogenic disease resulting from mutations in genes encoding WNK kinases, the ubiquitin scaffold protein cullin 3 (
James A. McCormick, Chao-Ling Yang, Chong Zhang, Brittney Davidge, Katharina I. Blankenstein, Andrew S. Terker, Bethzaida Yarbrough, Nicholas P. Meermeier, Hae J. Park, Belinda McCully, Mark West, Aljona Borschewski, Nina Himmerkus, Markus Bleich, Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig, Eduardo R. Argaiz, Gerardo Gamba, Jeffrey D. Singer, David H. Ellison
Breast cancers that occur in women 2–5 years postpartum are more frequently diagnosed at metastatic stages and correlate with poorer outcomes compared with breast cancers diagnosed in young, premenopausal women. The molecular mechanisms underlying the malignant severity associated with postpartum breast cancers (ppBCs) are unclear but relate to stromal wound-healing events during postpartum involution, a dynamic process characterized by widespread cell death in milk-producing mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Using both spontaneous and allografted mammary tumors in fully immune–competent mice, we discovered that postpartum involution increases mammary tumor metastasis. Cell death was widespread, not only occurring in MECs but also in tumor epithelium. Dying tumor cells were cleared through receptor tyrosine kinase MerTK–dependent efferocytosis, which robustly induced the transcription of genes encoding wound-healing cytokines, including IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-β. Animals lacking MerTK and animals treated with a MerTK inhibitor exhibited impaired efferocytosis in postpartum tumors, a reduction of M2-like macrophages but no change in total macrophage levels, decreased TGF-β expression, and a reduction of postpartum tumor metastasis that was similar to the metastasis frequencies observed in nulliparous mice. Moreover, TGF-β blockade reduced postpartum tumor metastasis. These data suggest that widespread cell death during postpartum involution triggers efferocytosis-induced wound-healing cytokines in the tumor microenvironment that promote metastatic tumor progression.
Jamie C. Stanford, Christian Young, Donna Hicks, Philip Owens, Andrew Williams, David B. Vaught, Meghan M. Morrison, Jiyeon Lim, Michelle Williams, Dana M. Brantley-Sieders, Justin M. Balko, Debra Tonetti, H. Shelton Earp III, Rebecca S. Cook
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are highly susceptible to ionizing radiation–mediated death via induction of ROS, DNA double-strand breaks, and apoptotic pathways. The development of therapeutics capable of mitigating ionizing radiation–induced hematopoietic toxicity could benefit both victims of acute radiation sickness and patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Unfortunately, therapies capable of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution following lethal radiation exposure have remained elusive. Here, we found that systemic administration of pleiotrophin (PTN), a protein that is secreted by BM-derived endothelial cells, substantially increased the survival of mice following radiation exposure and after myeloablative BM transplantation. In both models, PTN increased survival by accelerating the recovery of BM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in vivo. PTN treatment promoted HSC regeneration via activation of the RAS pathway in mice that expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-zeta (PTPRZ), whereas PTN treatment did not induce RAS signaling in PTPRZ-deficient mice, suggesting that PTN-mediated activation of RAS was dependent upon signaling through PTPRZ. PTN strongly inhibited HSC cycling following irradiation, whereas RAS inhibition abrogated PTN-mediated induction of HSC quiescence, blocked PTN-mediated recovery of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and abolished PTN-mediated survival of irradiated mice. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of PTN to improve survival after myeloablation and suggest that PTN-mediated hematopoietic regeneration occurs in a RAS-dependent manner.
Heather A. Himburg, Xiao Yan, Phuong L. Doan, Mamle Quarmyne, Eva Micewicz, William McBride, Nelson J. Chao, Dennis J. Slamon, John P. Chute
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by sustained high atrial activation rates and arrhythmogenic cellular Ca2+ signaling instability; however, it is not clear how a high atrial rate and Ca2+ instability may be related. Here, we characterized subcellular Ca2+ signaling after 5 days of high atrial rates in a rabbit model. While some changes were similar to those in persistent AF, we identified a distinct pattern of stabilized subcellular Ca2+ signaling. Ca2+ sparks, arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak, and SR Ca2+ content were largely unaltered. Based on computational analysis, these findings were consistent with a higher Ca2+ leak due to PKA-dependent phosphorylation of SR Ca2+ channels (RyR2s), fewer RyR2s, and smaller RyR2 clusters in the SR. We determined that less Ca2+ release per [Ca2+]i transient, increased Ca2+ buffering strength, shortened action potentials, and reduced L-type Ca2+ current contribute to a stunning reduction of intracellular Na+ concentration following rapid atrial pacing. In both patients with AF and in our rabbit model, this silencing led to failed propagation of the [Ca2+]i signal to the myocyte center. We conclude that sustained high atrial rates alone silence Ca2+ signaling and do not produce Ca2+ signaling instability, consistent with an adaptive molecular and cellular response to atrial tachycardia.
Maura Greiser, Benoît-Gilles Kerfant, George S.B. Williams, Niels Voigt, Erik Harks, Katharine M. Dibb, Anne Giese, Janos Meszaros, Sander Verheule, Ursula Ravens, Maurits A. Allessie, James S. Gammie, Jolanda van der Velden, W. Jonathan Lederer, Dobromir Dobrev, Ulrich Schotten
There are 3 major sweat-producing glands present in skin; eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands. Due to the high rate of secretion, eccrine sweating is a vital regulator of body temperature in response to thermal stress in humans; therefore, an inability to sweat (anhidrosis) results in heat intolerance that may cause impaired consciousness and death. Here, we have reported 5 members of a consanguineous family with generalized, isolated anhidrosis, but morphologically normal eccrine sweat glands. Whole-genome analysis identified the presence of a homozygous missense mutation in
Joakim Klar, Chihiro Hisatsune, Shahid M. Baig, Muhammad Tariq, Anna C.V. Johansson, Mahmood Rasool, Naveed Altaf Malik, Adam Ameur, Kotomi Sugiura, Lars Feuk, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Niklas Dahl
Various cytokines have been evaluated as potential anticancer drugs; however, most cytokine trials have shown relatively low efficacy. Here, we found that treatments with IL-12 and IL-18 or with a mutant form of IL-2 (the “superkine” called H9) provided substantial therapeutic benefit for mice specifically bearing MHC class I–deficient tumors, but these treatments were ineffective for mice with matched MHC class I+ tumors. Cytokine efficacy was linked to the reversal of the anergic state of NK cells that specifically occurred in MHC class I–deficient tumors, but not MHC class I+ tumors. NK cell anergy was accompanied by impaired early signal transduction and was locally imparted by the presence of MHC class I–deficient tumor cells, even when such cells were a minor population in a tumor mixture. These results demonstrate that MHC class I–deficient tumor cells can escape from the immune response by functionally inactivating NK cells, and suggest cytokine-based immunotherapy as a potential strategy for MHC class I–deficient tumors. These results suggest that such cytokine therapies would be optimized by stratification of patients. Moreover, our results suggest that such treatments may be highly beneficial in the context of therapies to enhance NK cell functions in cancer patients.
Michele Ardolino, Camillia S. Azimi, Alexandre Iannello, Troy N. Trevino, Lucas Horan, Lily Zhang, Weiwen Deng, Aaron M. Ring, Suzanne Fischer, K. Christopher Garcia, David H. Raulet
Patients with type 2 diabetes often present with cardiovascular complications; however, it is not clear how diabetes promotes cardiac dysfunction. In murine models, deletion of the gene encoding aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT, also known as HIF1β) in the liver or pancreas leads to a diabetic phenotype; however, the role of ARNT in cardiac metabolism is unknown. Here, we determined that cardiac-specific deletion of
Rongxue Wu, Hsiang-Chun Chang, Arineh Khechaduri, Kusum Chawla, Minh Tran, Xiaomeng Chai, Cory Wagg, Mohsen Ghanefar, Xinghang Jiang, Marina Bayeva, Frank Gonzalez, Gary Lopaschuk, Hossein Ardehali
Immunological activity in the CNS is largely dependent on an innate immune response and is heightened in diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. The molecular dynamics governing immune cell recruitment to sites of injury and disease in the CNS during sterile inflammation remain poorly defined. Here, we identified a subset of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) that responds to local chemotactic cues that are conserved among central neurons, vessels, and immune cells. Patients suffering from late-stage proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) had elevated vitreous semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A). Using a murine model, we found that SEMA3A acts as a potent attractant for neuropilin-1–positive (NRP-1–positive) MPs. These proangiogenic MPs were selectively recruited to sites of pathological neovascularization in response to locally produced SEMA3A as well as VEGF. NRP-1–positive MPs were essential for disease progression, as NRP-1–deficient MPs failed to enter the retina in a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), a proxy for PDR. OIR mice with NRP-1–deficient MPs exhibited decreased vascular degeneration and diminished pathological preretinal neovascularization. Intravitreal administration of a NRP-1–derived trap effectively mimicked the therapeutic benefits observed in mice lacking NRP-1–expressing MPs. Our findings indicate that NRP-1 is an obligate receptor for MP chemotaxis, bridging neural ischemia to an innate immune response in neovascular retinal disease.
Agnieszka Dejda, Gaelle Mawambo, Agustin Cerani, Khalil Miloudi, Zhuo Shao, Jean-Francois Daudelin, Salix Boulet, Malika Oubaha, Felix Beaudoin, Naoufal Akla, Sullivan Henriques, Catherine Menard, Andreas Stahl, Jean-Sébastien Delisle, Flavio A. Rezende, Nathalie Labrecque, Przemyslaw Sapieha
Transport of oxygen by red blood cells (rbc) is critical for life and embryogenesis. Here, we determined that provision of the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) to the systemic circulation is an essential function of rbc in embryogenesis. Mice with rbc-specific deletion of sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (
Yuquan Xiong, Peiying Yang, Richard L. Proia, Timothy Hla
Cholestenoic acids are formed as intermediates in metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids, and the biosynthetic enzymes that generate cholestenoic acids are expressed in the mammalian CNS. Here, we evaluated the cholestenoic acid profile of mammalian cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and determined that specific cholestenoic acids activate the liver X receptors (LXRs), enhance islet-1 expression in zebrafish, and increase the number of oculomotor neurons in the developing mouse in vitro and in vivo. While 3β,7α-dihydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid (3β,7α-diHCA) promoted motor neuron survival in an LXR-dependent manner, 3β-hydroxy-7-oxocholest-5-en-26-oic acid (3βH,7O-CA) promoted maturation of precursors into islet-1+ cells. Unlike 3β,7α-diHCA and 3βH,7O-CA, 3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid (3β-HCA) caused motor neuron cell loss in mice. Mutations in
Spyridon Theofilopoulos, William J. Griffiths, Peter J. Crick, Shanzheng Yang, Anna Meljon, Michael Ogundare, Satish Srinivas Kitambi, Andrew Lockhart, Karin Tuschl, Peter T. Clayton, Andrew A. Morris, Adelaida Martinez, M. Ashwin Reddy, Andrea Martinuzzi, Maria T. Bassi, Akira Honda, Tatsuki Mizuochi, Akihiko Kimura, Hiroshi Nittono, Giuseppe De Michele, Rosa Carbone, Chiara Criscuolo, Joyce L. Yau, Jonathan R. Seckl, Rebecca Schüle, Ludger Schöls, Andreas W. Sailer, Jens Kuhle, Matthew J. Fraidakis, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Knut R. Steffensen, Ingemar Björkhem, Patrik Ernfors, Jan Sjövall, Ernest Arenas, Yuqin Wang
Pierre-Alexandre Bart, Yunda Huang, Shelly T. Karuna, Samuel Chappuis, Julien Gaillard, Nidhi Kochar, Xiaoying Shen, Mary A. Allen, Song Ding, John Hural, Hua-Xin Liao, Barton F. Haynes, Barney S. Graham, Peter B. Gilbert, M. Juliana McElrath, David C. Montefiori, Georgia D. Tomaras, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Nicole Frahm
The transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) controls differentiation of long-lived plasma cells, and almost 10% of individuals with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) express either the C104R or A181E variants of TACI. These variants impair TACI function, and TACI-deficient mice exhibit a CVID-like disease. However, 1%–2% of normal individuals harbor the C140R or A181E TACI variants and have no outward signs of CVID, and it is not clear why TACI deficiency in this group does not cause disease. Here, we determined that TACI-deficient mice have low baseline levels of Ig in the blood but retain the ability to mutate Ig-associated genes that encode antigen-specific antibodies. The antigen-specific antibodies in TACI-deficient mice were produced in bursts and had higher avidity than those of WT animals. Moreover, mice lacking TACI were able to clear
Shoichiro Tsuji, Lucas Stein, Nobuhiko Kamada, Gabriel Nuñez, Richard Bram, Bruce A. Vallance, Ana E. Sousa, Jeffrey L. Platt, Marilia Cascalho
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a life-threatening impediment to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and current therapies do not completely prevent and/or treat cGVHD. CD4+ T cells and B cells mediate cGVHD; therefore, targeting these populations may inhibit cGVHD pathogenesis. Ibrutinib is an FDA-approved irreversible inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) and IL-2 inducible T cell kinase (ITK) that targets Th2 cells and B cells and produces durable remissions in B cell malignancies with minimal toxicity. Here, we evaluated whether ibrutinib could reverse established cGVHD in 2 complementary murine models, a model interrogating T cell–driven sclerodermatous cGVHD and an alloantibody-driven multiorgan system cGVHD model that induces bronchiolar obliterans (BO). In the T cell–mediated sclerodermatous cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment delayed progression, improved survival, and ameliorated clinical and pathological manifestations. In the alloantibody-driven cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment restored pulmonary function and reduced germinal center reactions and tissue immunoglobulin deposition. Animals lacking BTK and ITK did not develop cGVHD, indicating that these molecules are critical to cGVHD development. Furthermore, ibrutinib treatment reduced activation of T and B cells from patients with active cGVHD. Our data demonstrate that B cells and T cells drive cGVHD and suggest that ibrutinib has potential as a therapeutic agent, warranting consideration for cGVHD clinical trials.
Jason A. Dubovsky, Ryan Flynn, Jing Du, Bonnie K. Harrington, Yiming Zhong, Benjamin Kaffenberger, Carrie Yang, William H. Towns, Amy Lehman, Amy J. Johnson, Natarajan Muthusamy, Steven M. Devine, Samantha Jaglowski, Jonathan S. Serody, William J. Murphy, David H. Munn, Leo Luznik, Geoffrey R. Hill, Henry K. Wong, Kelli K.P. MacDonald, Ivan Maillard, John Koreth, Laurence Elias, Corey Cutler, Robert J. Soiffer, Joseph H. Antin, Jerome Ritz, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, John C. Byrd, Bruce R. Blazar
Patients with cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) exhibit perturbed end-artery function and have an increased risk for stroke and age-related cognitive decline. Here, we used targeted genome-wide association (GWA) analysis and defined a CSVD locus adjacent to the forkhead transcription factor
Curtis R. French, Sudha Seshadri, Anita L. Destefano, Myriam Fornage, Corey R. Arnold, Philip J. Gage, Jonathan M. Skarie, William B. Dobyns, Kathleen J. Millen, Ting Liu, William Dietz, Tsutomu Kume, Marten Hofker, Derek J. Emery, Sarah J. Childs, Andrew J. Waskiewicz, Ordan J. Lehmann
The lymphatic system is an important route for cancer dissemination, and lymph node metastasis (LNM) serves as a critical prognostic determinant in cancer patients. We investigated the contribution of COX-2–derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the formation of a premetastatic niche and LNM. A murine model of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell metastasis revealed that COX-2 is expressed in DCs from the early stage in the lymph node subcapsular regions, and COX-2 inhibition markedly suppressed mediastinal LNM. Stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was elevated in DCs before LLC cell infiltration to the lymph nodes, and a COX-2 inhibitor, an SDF-1 antagonist, and a CXCR4 neutralizing antibody all reduced LNM. Moreover, LNM was reduced in mice lacking the PGE2 receptor EP3, and stimulation of cultured DCs with an EP3 agonist increased SDF-1 production. Compared with WT CD11c+ DCs, injection of EP3-deficient CD11c+ DCs dramatically reduced accumulation of SDF-1+CD11c+ DCs in regional LNs and LNM in LLC-injected mice. Accumulation of Tregs and lymph node lymphangiogenesis, which may influence the fate of metastasized tumor cells, was also COX-2/EP3–dependent. These results indicate that DCs induce a premetastatic niche during LNM via COX-2/EP3–dependent induction of SDF-1 and suggest that inhibition of this signaling axis may be an effective strategy to suppress premetastatic niche formation and LNM.
Fumihiro Ogawa, Hideki Amano, Koji Eshima, Yoshiya Ito, Yoshio Matsui, Kanako Hosono, Hidero Kitasato, Akira Iyoda, Kazuya Iwabuchi, Yuji Kumagai, Yukitoshi Satoh, Shuh Narumiya, Masataka Majima
The intracellular scaffold protein IQGAP1 supports protein complexes in conjunction with numerous binding partners involved in multiple cellular processes. Here, we determined that IQGAP1 modulates airway smooth muscle contractility. Compared with WT controls, at baseline as well as after immune sensitization and challenge,
Mallar Bhattacharya, Aparna Sundaram, Makoto Kudo, Jessica Farmer, Previn Ganesan, Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, Mehrdad Arjomandi, Kamran Atabai, Xiaozhu Huang, Dean Sheppard
Coronary arteries (CAs) stem from the aorta at 2 highly stereotyped locations, deviations from which can cause myocardial ischemia and death. CA stems form during embryogenesis when peritruncal blood vessels encircle the cardiac outflow tract and invade the aorta, but the underlying patterning mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using murine models, we demonstrated that VEGF-C–deficient hearts have severely hypoplastic peritruncal vessels, resulting in delayed and abnormally positioned CA stems. We observed that VEGF-C is widely expressed in the outflow tract, while cardiomyocytes develop specifically within the aorta at stem sites where they surround maturing CAs in both mouse and human hearts. Mice heterozygous for islet 1 (
Heidi I. Chen, Aruna Poduri, Harri Numi, Riikka Kivela, Pipsa Saharinen, Andrew S. McKay, Brian Raftrey, Jared Churko, Xueying Tian, Bin Zhou, Joseph C. Wu, Kari Alitalo, Kristy Red-Horse
Animal models suggest that acetylcarnitine production is essential for maintaining metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity. Because current methods to detect acetylcarnitine involve biopsy of the tissue of interest, noninvasive alternatives to measure acetylcarnitine concentrations could facilitate our understanding of its physiological relevance in humans. Here, we investigated the use of long–echo time (TE) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to measure skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine concentrations on a clinical 3T scanner. We applied long-TE 1H-MRS to measure acetylcarnitine in endurance-trained athletes, lean and obese sedentary subjects, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients to cover a wide spectrum in insulin sensitivity. A long-TE 1H-MRS protocol was implemented for successful detection of skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine in these individuals. There were pronounced differences in insulin sensitivity, as measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, as measured by phosphorus-MRS (31P-MRS), across groups. Insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function were highest in trained athletes and lowest in T2DM patients. Skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine concentration showed a reciprocal distribution, with mean acetylcarnitine concentration correlating with mean insulin sensitivity in each group. These results demonstrate that measuring acetylcarnitine concentrations with 1H-MRS is feasible on clinical MR scanners and support the hypothesis that T2DM patients are characterized by a decreased formation of acetylcarnitine, possibly underlying decreased insulin sensitivity.
Lucas Lindeboom, Christine I. Nabuurs, Joris Hoeks, Bram Brouwers, Esther Phielix, M. Eline Kooi, Matthijs K.C. Hesselink, Joachim E. Wildberger, Robert D. Stevens, Timothy Koves, Deborah M. Muoio, Patrick Schrauwen, Vera B. Schrauwen-Hinderling
Microbial clearance by eukaryotes relies on complex and coordinated processes that remain poorly understood. The gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO) is generated by the stress-responsive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by
Barbara Wegiel, Rasmus Larsen, David Gallo, Beek Yoke Chin, Clair Harris, Praveen Mannam, Elzbieta Kaczmarek, Patty J. Lee, Brian S. Zuckerbraun, Richard Flavell, Miguel P. Soares, Leo E. Otterbein
There is strong evidence that overproduction of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1) in the placenta is a major cause of vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia through sFLT1-dependent antagonism of VEGF. However, the cause of placental sFLT1 upregulation is not known. Here we demonstrated that in women with preeclampsia, sFLT1 is upregulated in placental trophoblasts, while VEGF is upregulated in adjacent maternal decidual cells. In response to VEGF, expression of
Xiujun Fan, Anshita Rai, Neeraja Kambham, Joyce F. Sung, Nirbhai Singh, Matthew Petitt, Sabita Dhal, Rani Agrawal, Richard E. Sutton, Maurice L. Druzin, Sanjiv S. Gambhir, Balamurali K. Ambati, James C. Cross, Nihar R. Nayak
The demonstrated ability to differentiate both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) holds great promise for both regenerative medicine and liver disease research. Here, we determined that, despite an immature phenotype, differentiated HLCs are permissive to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and mount an interferon response to HCV infection in vitro. HLCs differentiated from hESCs and hiPSCs could be engrafted in the liver parenchyma of immune-deficient transgenic mice carrying the urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene driven by the major urinary protein promoter. The HLCs were maintained for more than 3 months in the livers of chimeric mice, in which they underwent further maturation and proliferation. These engrafted and expanded human HLCs were permissive to in vivo infection with HCV-positive sera and supported long-term infection of multiple HCV genotypes. Our study demonstrates efficient engraftment and in vivo HCV infection of human stem cell–derived hepatocytes and provides a model to study chronic HCV infection in patient-derived hepatocytes, action of antiviral therapies, and the biology of HCV infection.
Arnaud Carpentier, Abeba Tesfaye, Virginia Chu, Ila Nimgaonkar, Fang Zhang, Seung Bum Lee, Snorri S. Thorgeirsson, Stephen M. Feinstone, T. Jake Liang
Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy, without a known prior oral exposure, suggesting that alternative exposure routes contribute to food allergy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that peanut proteins activate innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We exposed mice to peanut protein extract on undamaged areas of skin and observed that repeated topical exposure to peanut allergens led to sensitization and anaphylaxis upon rechallenge. In mice, this epicutaneous peanut exposure induced sensitization to the peanut components Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, which is also observed in human peanut allergy. Both crude peanut extract and Ara h 2 alone served as adjuvants, as both induced a bystander sensitization that was similar to that induced by the atopic dermatitis-associated staphylococcal enterotoxin B. In cultured human keratinocytes and in murine skin, peanut extract directly induced cytokine expression. Moreover, topical peanut extract application induced an alteration dependent on the IL-33 receptor ST2 in skin-draining DCs, resulting in Th2 cytokine production from T cells. Together, our data support the hypothesis that peanuts are allergenic due to inherent adjuvant activity and suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life.
Leticia Tordesillas, Ritobrata Goswami, Sara Benedé, Galina Grishina, David Dunkin, Kirsi M. Järvinen, Soheila J. Maleki, Hugh A. Sampson, M. Cecilia Berin
The signal-responsive E3 ubiquitin ligase pellino 1 (PELI1) regulates TLR and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and contributes to the maintenance of autoimmunity; however, little is known about the consequence of mutations that result in upregulation of PELI1. Here, we developed transgenic mice that constitutively express human
Hye-Young Park, Heounjeong Go, Ha Rim Song, Suhyeon Kim, Geun-Hyoung Ha, Yoon-Kyung Jeon, Ji-Eun Kim, Ho Lee, Hyeseong Cho, Ho Chul Kang, Hee-Young Chung, Chul-Woo Kim, Doo Hyun Chung, Chang-Woo Lee
Ischemia is a leading cause of acute kidney injury. Kidney ischemia is associated with loss of cellular ion homeostasis; however, the pathways that underlie ion homeostasis dysfunction are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the nonselective cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) in a murine model of kidney ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. TRPM2-deficient mice were resistant to ischemic injury, as reflected by improved kidney function, reduced histologic damage, suppression of proapoptotic pathways, and reduced inflammation. Moreover, pharmacologic TRPM2 inhibition was also protective against I/R injury. TRPM2 was localized mainly in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, and studies in chimeric mice indicated that the effects of TRPM2 are due to expression in parenchymal cells rather than hematopoietic cells. TRPM2-deficient mice had less oxidative stress and lower levels of NADPH oxidase activity after ischemia. While RAC1 is a component of the NADPH oxidase complex, its relation to TRPM2 and kidney ischemic injury is unknown. Following kidney ischemia, TRPM2 promoted RAC1 activation, with active RAC1 physically interacting with TRPM2 and increasing TRPM2 expression at the cell membrane. Finally, inhibition of RAC1 reduced oxidant stress and ischemic injury in vivo. These results demonstrate that TRPM2-dependent RAC1 activation increases oxidant stress and suggest that therapeutic approaches targeting TRPM2 and/or RAC1 may be effective in reducing ischemic kidney injury.
Guofeng Gao, Weiwei Wang, Raghu K. Tadagavadi, Nicole E. Briley, Michael I. Love, Barbara A. Miller, W. Brian Reeves
Levels of pituitary growth hormone (GH), a metabolic homeostatic factor with strong lipolytic activity, are decreased in obese individuals. GH declines prior to the onset of weight gain in response to excess caloric intake and hyperinsulinemia; however, the mechanism by which GH is reduced is not clear. We used transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene,
Hana Vakili, Yan Jin, Peter A. Cattini
A major clinical hurdle for the management of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) in patients is the resistance of tumors to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and their subsequent development into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). While recent studies have identified potential pathways involved in CRPC development, the drivers of CRPC remain largely undefined. Here we determined that nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCoA2, also known as SRC-2), which is frequently amplified or overexpressed in patients with metastatic PCa, mediates development of CRPC. In a murine model, overexpression of NCoA2 in the prostate epithelium resulted in neoplasia and, in combination with
Jun Qin, Hui-Ju Lee, San-Pin Wu, Shih-Chieh Lin, Rainer B. Lanz, Chad J. Creighton, Francesco J. DeMayo, Sophia Y. Tsai, Ming-Jer Tsai
Cardiac Purkinje cells are important triggers of ventricular arrhythmias associated with heritable and acquired syndromes; however, the mechanisms responsible for this proarrhythmic behavior are incompletely understood. Here, through transcriptional profiling of genetically labeled cardiomyocytes, we identified expression of Purkinje cell protein-4 (
Eugene E. Kim, Akshay Shekhar, Jia Lu, Xianming Lin, Fang-Yu Liu, Jie Zhang, Mario Delmar, Glenn I. Fishman
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is well recognized as an adverse event associated with implantable medical devices that contain allergenic materials like nickel; however, other cutaneous consequences of chronic exposure to allergens in implanted devices are not well understood. Here, we present a clinical case of Marjolin’s ulcer, an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that developed in response to chronic ACD caused by an orthopedic implant. We used a standard murine model of contact hypersensitivity to determine whether chronic ACD promotes skin carcinogenesis. Chronic application of 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB) to carcinogen-treated skin led to the development of papillomas and aggressive SCC. DNFB-driven chronic ACD was marked by type 2 inflammation, which mediated skin carcinogenesis, as mice unable to mount an inflammatory response were less likely to develop skin tumors. Importantly, we found similar tumor-promoting inflammation surrounding the SCC in our patient. Our findings demonstrate that chronic ACD caused by constant exposure to an allergen can promote tumorigenesis at skin sites with preexisting cancer-initiated cells. Moreover, our results suggest that patients with implantable devices placed in close proximity to the skin should be monitored for ACD and highlight the importance of patch testing prior to the placement of such devices.
Shadmehr Demehri, Trevor J. Cunningham, Eva A. Hurst, Andras Schaffer, David M. Sheinbein, Wayne M. Yokoyama
In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), inflammatory axonal injury is a major determinant of disability; however, the drivers of this injury are incompletely understood. Here, we used the EAE model and determined that the extracellular matrix protein matrilin-2 (MATN2) is an endogenous neuronal molecule that is regulated in association with inflammatory axonal injury. Compared with WT mice, mice harboring a deletion of
Anna Jonas, Stefan Thiem, Tanja Kuhlmann, Raimund Wagener, Attila Aszodi, Cameron Nowell, Karin Hagemeier, Louise Laverick, Victoria Perreau, Vilija Jokubaitis, Ben Emery, Trevor Kilpatrick, Helmut Butzkueven, Melissa Gresle
Osteoclastogenesis requires activation of RANK signaling as well as costimulatory signals from immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-containing (ITAM-containing) receptors/adaptors, predominantly tyrosine kinase–binding proteins DAP12 and FcRγ, in osteoclast precursors. It is not well understood how costimulatory signals are regulated and integrated with RANK signaling. Here, we found that osteopetrotic bone phenotypes in mice lacking DAP12 or DAP12 and FcRγ are mediated by the transcription factor RBP-J, as deletion of
Susan Li, Christine H. Miller, Eugenia Giannopoulou, Xiaoyu Hu, Lionel B. Ivashkiv, Baohong Zhao
Patients with BRAFV600E/K-driven melanoma respond to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib due to subsequent deactivation of the proliferative RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. In BRAF WT cells and those with mutations that activate or result in high levels of the BRAF activator RAS, BRAF inhibition can lead to ERK activation, resulting in tumorigenic transformation. We describe a patient with malignant melanoma who developed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in the absence of RAS mutations during vemurafenib treatment. BRAF inhibition promoted patient CLL proliferation in culture and in murine xenografts and activated MEK/ERK in primary CLL cells from additional patients. BRAF inhibitor–driven ERK activity and CLL proliferation required B cell antigen receptor (BCR) activation, as inhibition of the BCR-proximal spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) reversed ERK hyperactivation and proliferation of CLL cells from multiple patients, while inhibition of the BCR-distal Bruton tyrosine kinase had no effect. Additionally, the RAS-GTP/RAS ratio in primary CLL cells exposed to vemurafenib was reduced upon SYK inhibition. BRAF inhibition increased mortality and CLL expansion in mice harboring CLL xenografts; however, SYK or MEK inhibition prevented CLL proliferation and increased animal survival. Together, these results suggest that BRAF inhibitors promote B cell malignancies in the absence of obvious mutations in
Niuscha Yaktapour, Frank Meiss, Justin Mastroianni, Thorsten Zenz, Hana Andrlova, Nimitha R. Mathew, Rainer Claus, Barbara Hutter, Stefan Fröhling, Benedikt Brors, Dietmar Pfeifer, Milena Pantic, Ingrid Bartsch, Timo S. Spehl, Philipp T. Meyer, Justus Duyster, Katja Zirlik, Tilman Brummer, Robert Zeiser
Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski, Hisato Yamasaki, Chuan Ping Si, Xiaoyi Jin, Yujun Zhang, Jillian Richmond, Marina Tuzova, Kevin Wilson, Beth Sullivan, David Jones, Nataliya Ryzhenko, Frederick Little, Thomas S. Kupper, David M. Center, William W. Cruikshank
Elena Magrini, Alessandra Villa, Francesca Angiolini, Andrea Doni, Giovanni Mazzarol, Noemi Rudini, Luigi Maddaluno, Mina Komuta, Baki Topal, Hans Prenen, Melitta Schachner, Stefano Confalonieri, Elisabetta Dejana, Fabrizio Bianchi, Massimiliano Mazzone, Ugo Cavallaro
John M. Carethers, Shaun Coughlin, Betty Diamond, Serpil Erzurum, Linda P. Fried, J. Larry Jameson, Kenneth Kaushansky, Mary E. Klotman, Stanley Lemon, Beverly Mitchell, Paul Rothman, Charles Sawyers, Christine Seidman, Stefan Somlo